What are Smart Contracts in Blockchain?

What are Smart Contracts in Blockchain?

With the advent of Blockchain, we have seen several innovations out of the old traditional manner of doing things due to its unique features. Smart Contracts emerged as the most appealing among these novel properties, as they enable the transfer of anything on a blockchain. They opened up previously untapped potential and developed assets like money programmable and DApps. Their applications have grown to the point that they now control billions of dollars. 

Let's take a detailed look at how they work and their features.

What is a Smart Contract?

A smart contract is a secure code that executes on a blockchain network when certain predefined conditions are met. They are automated applications or lines of code that operate on a decentralized system such as a blockchain. This code controls the execution of irreversible and trackable transactions.

They enable trustworthy agreements and transactions to be carried out between different anonymous parties without the requirement of a legal system, or central authority. They let developers create apps that use blockchain security, dependability, and accessibility while providing complex peer-to-peer functionality ranging from banking to logistics and trade.

It is similar to a traditional contract in terms of laying out the conditions of an arrangement. However, the terms of a smart contract are performed as code running on a blockchain such as Ethereum. Technically, it can also be called an Ethereum account, which has a balance and can also send transactions over the network. 

Smart contracts are replicated on each node of the blockchain network to avoid contract manipulation. Human error might be eliminated by allowing machines to execute tasks and using services supplied by blockchain platforms to prevent conflicts over such contracts.

Features of a Smart Contract

No Need for an Intermediary 

They enabled users to codify their agreements and trust relationships by allowing automated transactions to take place without the oversight of a central authority. The elimination of a trusted third party will reduce the transaction costs and authority imposed by them.

The autonomous execution of tasks, depending on the situation, increases the efficiency of a system without any human actions or biased actions.  As a result, smart contracts are a viable option for most applications that demand alternatives without the involvement of trusted third parties.


It is one of the key differentiating characteristics acquired by smart contracts from the blockchain. The smart contract is transparent in two ways. Firstly, the code stated in smart contracts is transparent to both intervening parties and the general public. Secondly, the set of transactions included in the blocks is likewise visible to the general public

As a result, the blockchain network's intervening parties may trust the logic and transactions in the blockchain network. Centralized databases are likewise at risk. It is also hard to determine whether any changes were made to the data at rest. Transparency of smart contract code guarantees that participants in the blockchain ecosystem are publicly visible and ensures that they are executed correctly.


Digital signatures are used to validate the integrity of distributed ledger transaction records. Individual transactions were also inspected and authorised before being added to the ledger. The ledger is made up of immutable authorised transactions. An individual cannot be committed to the modification. An immutable smart contract code is put on the blockchain.

However, smart contracts can only be changed if all of the nodes in the blockchain agree. This implies that all blockchain network participants can trust the smart contract and believe that the executed code contains the logic given and agreed upon by each blockchain network participant. It can be read by anyone but can only be changed by the developer or creator.


The flexibility to readily amend contract terms saves parties' expense on contract drafting and renegotiation. Anyway, smart contracts are distributed infrastructure programs that are designed to automate predefined processes based on transparent and trusted data sources. Implying that smart contracts are not flexible in the usual sense. Their flexibility  is built into the coding and the way they are employed in the Smart Legal Contract's contract text.

Smart contracts can improve the drafting phase by removing ambiguities, inconsistencies, and redundancies that are the source of litigation. It is simple to get more clarity in knowing the full agreement, duties, and obligations. Furthermore, when the requirements indicated in the code are met, particular actions are automatically triggered: actions that no longer rely on the parties' subjective (and arbitrary) volition, but on objective and confirmed aspects.

However, their flexibility is conditional! It indicates that they conduct a procedure and then apply a new pattern/rule based on the information received (input data). Smart contracts cannot address such problems of flexibility, but they can assist in detecting them and eliminating gaps. 

Smart contracts are definitely way ahead of traditional contracts due to their variety of benefits, including speed, efficiency, accuracy, trust, transparency, security, and cost savings. They automate operations by using computer protocols, saving hours in many business procedures.